Carlos Toranzo writes in Pagina Siete:
The direction of the “process of change”
When the world was liberal and the British Empire dominated the international arena, in Bolivia it was time to build capitalism with elements of liberalism. Then, when that capitalism is in crisis after 1929 and the Second World War, when the time comes and ECLAC Keynesianism postulates the necessity of protectionism and inward development branded substitution industrialization, Bolivia also falls to this international influence.
By sinking Keynesianism came the phase of neoliberalism with Thatcher in Britain and other representatives in the world. Bolivia also received this influence. After the fall of neoliberalism, postcapitalist economies were built, capitalism, though beaten, is still present in most of the world.
It may not be the neoliberal orthodoxy, but the world does not show postcapitalist construction or negations of capitalism. China, itself, a country is said, to have two systems, we speak of socialism, which is weaker and weaker, and capitalism is growing. Cuba, the symbol of socialism in Latin America, is increasingly showing their attachment to the market and leaves behind a socialism that failed to build and less consolidated.
Venezuela never built socialism, all it built was a debacle. And on the other hand, who built communitarianism? The answer is clear, no one, not Bolivia. Therefore, to argue that the change process is aimed at building the communitarian socialism is not obvious, simply because with reality, national or international. Words can go to community socialism, but the economic and social practice goes the other way.
This shows the factual reality is the construction of a neoliberal state capitalism with actors, a kind of nationalism reissue of 1952 and in the matrix of economic statism what is displayed is the existence of an extraction developmentalism, the same which has been deployed by right and left for over a century.
Today, that extractivism with signs of left, does not sympathize nor care with the environment, is too far away from respect for Mother Earth.
State capitalism points to state control over, it works to some extent on the exploitation of hydrocarbons, especially gas, however, the surplus is shared with foreign companies, for the distribution of fifty fifty, approved by Hormando Vaca Diez , has changed little in favor of the State. In addition, there is much darkness on the recoverable costs of foreign companies.
In the field of mining by the state, the control of surplus is not so clear, because in this sector taxation is eight times lower than for oil, that is why San Cristobal controls much of exports and a smaller portion by the cooperatives, and they are not such “cooperative”.
In the field of soy is the presence of cruceños businessmen is crucial, they are the ones who control gains, but only part of the business, because basically is managed by transnational capital of agriculture.
The dream of the MNR, the March to the East, has completed by the MAS, so does its alliance with the Santa Cruz entrepreneurship, which is small ally of the great transnational capital. None of this has to do with communitarianism. Small and medium producers, many Collas, are subordinate to a string, where the core is that big transnational capital.
State capitalism has control company circulation by emerging entrepreneurs, Aymara bourgeoisie, cunumis bourgeoisie and Cholas bourgeoisie.
Where once the imports amounted to 800 million dollars, today they are close to 8,000 million, largely controlled by these Cholas bourgeoisie. These sectors are the new economic elites of the country, coexist with cruceño entrepreneurship and see the strong weakening of the traditional entrepreneurship of La Paz. Neither of that is socialism or communitarianism.
In the field of political elites there are mobility and mutations, the new elites are deeply corporate, coca growers, cooperative miners, drivers, unions and peasants. The new elites, economic and political are profoundly liberal and neoliberal. It is therefore no wonder that Bolivia has a State capitalism with neoliberal actors.
Carlos Toranzo Roca is an economist and analyst.
In sum, what is happening in Bolivia is that a mob, an ochlocracy took over power for their own gain. Too much demagogue, cheap populist discourse. They have lied, misled and encouraged rage, resentment, envy on their voters.. to the disgrace of our beloved country. Almost a decade lost, $150 billion dollars wasted!