Contracts with Bolivia’s biggest customers — Brazil and Argentina — are in the process of being renegotiated at a time when both are vowing to boost their own output, and enjoy extensive coastlines that allow them access to a growing global market for liquefied natural gas.
The upheaval comes as Bolivia’s public debt hits record levels, and an October election is bearing down on President Evo Morales, the longest-serving leader in South America. Morales has posted twelve years of economic growth, surviving a global financial crisis and a commodities downturn. Now he’s facing a new test, with revenue from hydrocarbons in decline and popular protests soaring.
“Basically, there’s a new game in town that has broken the Bolivian monopoly on natural gas in South America,” said Fernando Valle, an oil and gas analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence. “When you have super high margins somewhere, someone is eventually going to find a way to go into that market and undercut you. That’s what’s happening to the Bolivians now.”
Over the last four years, it’s become increasingly cheaper to build floating terminals that can receive huge LNG tankers, store the gas and vaporize it for in-land power generation. Meanwhile, YPF SA, Argentina’s state-controlled energy company, is now planning to build an export terminal that will allow it to liquefy the country’s gas and ship it out.
In 2018, Bolivia’s gas exports fell by about 30 percent, drastically impacting the government’s revenue and the entrance of foreign currency, according to Alvaro Rios, a founding partner of Gas Energy LA, a Bolivia-based consulting firm. Public debt, meanwhile, soared to 51 percent of gross domestic product in 2017, according to the latest available data from Bolivia’s central bank. That’s up from 36 percent in 2014. Morales’ popularity is declining, with his approval rating falling six points in one year, to 43 percent, according the latest Ipsos poll in August.
Bolivia’s Hydrocarbons Ministry, meanwhile, declined to comment for this article.
Last Standing Member
Morales is the last standing member of the so-called Pink Tide, a generation of left-wing South American leaders who rose to power promising social change. Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Argentina’s Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, Brazil’s Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Ecuador’s Rafael Correa are all gone. And Morales’s last ally, Venezuela’s Nicolas Maduro, is locked in a standoff over who is the legitimate authority in that economically-ravaged country.
A new generation of leaders is in place with very different political philosophies. Both Jair Bolsonaro, the newly elected right-wing president of Brazil, and Mauricio Macri, the leader of Argentina, have promised to make their countries increasingly energy self-sufficient moving forward.
When Brazil signed its contract with Bolivia in 1999 and Argentina signed its deal in 2006, gas was a scarce and expensive fuel mainly due to the difficulties of storing and transporting it. Bolivia was able to get around these issues by having two pipelines built that directly linked the land-locked nation with its neighboring countries.
Argentina’s Vaca Muerta
Today, Argentina’s Vaca Muerta boasts the world’s second-largest shale gas reserves after China. In December, Argentina’s production reached 28 million cubic meters a day, more than three times higher than at the same stage in 2017, according to the nation’s Energy Secretariat. Brazil’s gas production is up as well, with the average monthly output rising 1.7 percent in 2018 from the previous year’s average, according to the latest available data from November.
In October, Argentine former Energy Minister Javier Iguacel said that the country won’t need Bolivian gas by 2020, and Brazil is now working to negotiate a new deal.
Brazil now spends about $1.3 billion a year on Bolivian gas. Former President Michel Temer’s administration was considering reducing the current contract by half, and Petrobras executives under Bolsonaro’s government have said that a deal contemplating smaller volumes will allow other companies beyond Petroleo Brasileiro SA, the state-controlled energy giant, to import gas from Bolivia directly.
While the contract with Bolivia is set to expire in December, a key provision mandates that Petrobras pay for at least 24 million cubic meters per day. Bolivia’s state-owned gas company YPFB says the contract will span beyond December because it hasn’t delivered all the gas that Brazil has paid for and is hopeful that the contract will be extended through 2023.
“The Bolivians are obviously trying to find options to have a stronger negotiating position, but the reality is that they’re going to have to lower their prices,” Valle said. “The political situation plays a lot into this; Morales realizes that he is in a weaker position now.”
In October, Morales will be seeking a fourth term as president. In 2017, the country’s Constitutional Court threw out term limits in Bolivia that would have kept Morales from running again. The move spurred widespread protests.
The election will be “an inflection point for Evo Morales’ presidency, for his legacy and for the country,” said Tanvir Malik, a Bolivia analyst at the Economist Intelligence Unit. “Until now, Morales has been able to spend his way out of any significant opposition coming up against him. But the same protests will be harder to quell now.”
Bolivian Thoughts opinion: evo’s hatred to what liberal classic stands shows how narrow-minded he really is. Despite all his negative remarks to previous governments, he had no trouble accepting ALL those incoming revenues from all our commodity exports. All oil/gas wells and pipelines were built under previous governments’ investments with the private sector. During his 13 years in absolute control of ALL State powers, he failed to find new reservoirs, now he is pushing to go inside National Parks, which was unthinkable before his government. He appointed himself as defender of Mother Nature, instead he has provoked more illegal deforestation than ever before and he has also little respect over indigenous territories.
Under his government he received over $180 billion dollars and he also received ALL foregone debt from the international donor community, a process that started back in 1996 with HIPC [Heavily Indebted Poor Countries] and those reimbursements showed when he was in government. The result is that he wasted ALL those funds, he did not create a single sustainable job, his ochlocracy engaged in rampant corruption, and all he did was spend money for his relentless political campaign to remain in power. Soap operas, cartoons, museum, humongous palace, armored vehicles, luxury plane are just the tip of the iceberg … he let narcotrafficking bloom and that came with atrocious murders nation wide, money laundering, kidnapping are his legacy …
He has no word, he said he would comply with the Referendum regarding he could run again for the 4th time! He lost on February 21st, 2016 and he said he would comply but now he says different.