Bolivian History 101: The creation of Bolivia

Jose Alberto Diez de Medina writes in El Diario:

The creation of Bolivia

Jose Alberto Diez de MedinaAfter the battle of Ayacucho, the Liberator army left Puno heading for Upper Peru [now Bolivia], to cross the Desaguadero river. Alto Peru [now Bolivia] maintained through its leaders, and of its borders a nation already modeled. Their guerrillas, who for 15 years had fought day by day against the Spanish Empire, gave that credit. In this regard, a Bolivian historian noted:

“The people of Upper Peru are the ones who have conquered the most brilliant laurel and the purest glory in this holy war of Independence … The valleys in camps, and the gorges of the headwaters were converted into impregnable Thermopylae … Humble origin of the 109 guerrilla warlords who fought, of whom only nine survived at the end of the war, without any capitulating or requesting barracks, has concealed their true greatness …. ”

The learned Chuquisaca propagated from the University of San Francisco Xavier the ideas of freedom in South America.

That is why Marshal Antonio Jose de Sucre, to cross the Desaguadero, wrote to the Minister of War of the Liberator:

“In ten days’ time the army will be on the other side of the Desaguadero, so I will be in the case of organizing that country as freed by the independents, and leave the people their sovereignty to be constituted, as long as there is an arrangement with the Congresses of Peru and the former Viceroyalty of Buenos Aires, both uniforms, legally and freely convened and gathered. It seems that this is the mind of His Excellency The Liberator, President of Colombia.”

It is necessary to note the influence of doctors Casimiro Olañeta, Mariano Calvimontes, and General Francisco Burdett O’Connor, who were interpreters of the wishes of a people who had forged their way.

With this background, Marshal Sucre issued his Decree of February 9, 1825, in the city of La Paz, which in its most salient parts says:

“That when the Liberation Army passed the Desaguadero, it had only the object of redeeming the provinces of Upper Peru from Spanish oppression, leaving it in possession of its rights.

That: being the greater part of the liberating army composed of Colombian troops, it is none other than its duty to liberate the country and leave the people in the fullness of their sovereignty, bearing witness to justice, generosity and our principles.


The provinces known as Upper Peru, will be dependent on the first authority of the liberating army, while an Assembly of Deputies, of the towns, deliberate the fate of them.

All the deputies will be gathered in Oruro, on April 10, so that for a week, their powers and credentials will be examined.

On April 29 the General Assembly will meet and it will deliberate on the destinies of the provinces and on its provisional regime of Government; And while a final, legally legal and uniform resolution, shall be governed by article 1.

The Decree of February 9, 1825 is the cornerstone for the independence of Upper Peru, despite the non-acceptance of it by the Liberator.

Finally Bolivar in Arequipa, addressing Marshal Sucre, says:

“Your feelings agree with mine in such a wonderful way that I can not but confess to you that I would have wished you to take the step you took to leave those provinces whose chains have just broken loose.”

primera bandera boliviaHis famous decree dated May 16, 1825 signifies the definitive creation of Bolivia.

The obvious thing is that the creators of Bolivia are the Liberator and the Marshal of Ayacucho.

Bolivarian Society of Bolivia. Founded in 1926.

Published by Bolivian Thoughts

Senior managerial experience on sustainable development projects.

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